Sheets, Toops Scoring Pad. Form 21

Sheets, Toops Scoring Pad. Form 21

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In the years following World War I, as the number of students taking psychological tests expanded and as data processing companies like IBM sought new markets for their equipment, more efficient forms for recording and scoring written psychological tests developed. Born and raised in Ohio, Herbert Anderson Toops (1895-1972) earned B.S. and B.A. from Ohio State University and was beginning graduate studies at the time of the outbreak of World War I. He became familiar with mass testing programs during that war, when he worked on trade tests in the U.S. Army. Afterward, he continued this research, writing a PhD. dissertation at Teachers College of Columbia University. In 1923, he returned to Ohio State to serve on the faculty, rising to the rank of professor in 1927 and staying until his retirement in 1965. Toops and his students also promoted the spread of aptitude testing in the Ohio schools. In the mid-1930s, Toops patented this score sheet for recording the results of tests. This example was sold by Science Research Associates.
H.A. Toops, “Trade Tests in Education, The Journal of Educational Research, 1922, vol. 6, pp. 74-75.
Herbert A. Toops, “Examination Conducting Device,” U.S. Patent 2,052,369, August 25, 1936.
Herbert A. Toops Papers, Ohio State University Archives, Columbus, Ohio.
Currently not on view
Object Name
set of sheets
date made
ca 1936
Science Research Assoc. Inc.
Physical Description
paper (overall material)
overall: 21.5 cm x 28 cm; 8 15/32 in x 11 1/32 in
ID Number
accession number
catalog number
Credit Line
Gift of David Gold
Psychological Tests
See more items in
Medicine and Science: Mathematics
Science & Mathematics
Data Source
National Museum of American History
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