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20th Century Inventors:
Graphics List

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Listed below are the graphics displayed in the 20th century section of the exhibition. Copyright belongs to the source unless otherwise noted.

Editor's note, June 2004. The 20th century section of Lighting A Revolution has been renovated and reopened.

Section 1: Preconditions

Negative # Image Title Date Source Comments
* Incandescent lamp in action 1999 NMAH Computer Graphic Image showing how an incandescent lamp works.
99-4142 Irving Langmuir and the king of Siam 1931 Science Service Historical Image Collection #25.046 Original Caption:
JUL 16 1931 - An incandescent lamp giving 1,000 times as much light as the ordinary household lamp was shown to King Prajadhipok of Siam when he visited the General Electric Company's research laboratory in Schenectady in July.
Dr. Irving Langmuir, associate director of the laboratory, is holding the lamp.
* Discharge lamps in action 1999 NMAH Computer Graphic Image of how discharge lamps work.
99-4141 Worker coating a fluorescent tube with phosphors. about 1940 Science Service Historical Image Collection #25.020 Original Caption:
7/41 - Fluorescent tubes light by means of an interior coating of fluorescent powders called phosphors. The glass tubes are filled to the top with the liquid phosphors.
A young lady at work in the Westinghouse Lamp Division, Bloomfield, N.J., here fills a tube. The phosphors drain out, leaving a coating inside.
99-4107 Low-pressure sodium lamp color spectra about 1980 Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Color spectra as seen in "Different Ways to Make Light".
99-4107 Clear Hg-lamp color spectra about 1980 Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Color spectra as seen in "Different Ways to Make Light".
99-4107 Incandescent lamp color spectra about 1980 Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Color spectra as seen in "Different Ways to Make Light".
99-4108 Fluorescent lamp color spectra about 1980 Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Color spectra as seen in "Different Ways to Make Light".
94-5917 Flowers in front of the National Museum of American History 1994 Smithsonian Institution Photo Photo seen under four different lamps in "Different Ways to Make Light".
99-4110 Graph showing spectral sensitivity of the human eye about 1980 Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Chart from the IES Handbook
99-4109 Energy distribution of tungsten for different temperatures. about 1980 Illuminating Engineering Society of North America Chart from the IES Handbook shows how the spectral output of an incandescent lamp varies in relation to temperature.


Section 2: Modern Invention

Negative # Image Title Date Source Comments
99-4133 Elmer G. Fridrich about 1980 Elmer G. Fridrich Fridrich in his office smoking a pipe.
99-4127 Tungsten-halogen development team 1959 Elmer G. Fridrich, ©General Electric from Journal General Electric News, 26 June 1959, p. 3. Photograph shows Alton Foote, Edward Zubler, Frederick Mosby (seated), & Stanley Ackerman.
99-4111 Lamp before and after action of the halogen cycle about 1960 Edward Zubler, ©General Electric Before and after image of the same lamp showing the cleaning affect of the halogen cycle.
99-4112 Tungsten-halogen filament showing crystal growth about 1960 Edward Zubler, ©General Electric Magnified image of filament in tungsten halogen lamp.
99-4126 Gilbert H. Reiling demonstrating a metal-halide lamp 1962 Gilbert Reiling, ©General Electric GE publicity photo from the lamp's introduction.
* US patent #1,025,932 to Charles Steinmetz 1962 Gilbert Reiling GE made a lamp according to the specifications of this patent during the processing of Reiling's application.
99-4073 Spectral readings from Reiling's report 1960 Gilbert Reiling, ©General Electric Spectral outputs of two experimental metal-halide lamps and a production mercury-vapor lamp from the internal GE report in which Reiling describes his experiments.
99-4074 Experimental lamps from Reiling's report (Na & Hg) 1960 Gilbert Reiling, ©General Electric Two experimental metal-halide lamps from Reiling's experiments. This image also appears in Reiling's report to GE.
99-4102 Color comparison between mercury-vapor and metal-halide 1962 Gilbert Reiling, ©General Electric Publicity photo of identically-dressed models under different lamps.
* Joseph E. Burke 1958 ©Hall of Electrical History of the Schenectady Museum Association GE personnel photo.
99-4124 Kurt Schmidt and William Louden 1962 William Louden, ©General Electric Publicity photo for the introduction of the lamp.
99-4125 Temperature gradients along an HPS arc-tube 1968 William Louden, ©General Electric Image of an HPS arc-tube showing structural elements and operating temperatures.
99-4122 Worker assembling HPS lamps about 1969 William Louden, ©General Electric Flow of work at station is evident in photo.
99-4123 Make-shift fixture to demonstrate effect of reflected light on arc-tube about 1964 William Louden, ©General Electric A simple apparatus made by Louden to demonstrate the affect of reflected luminaire heat on an HPS lamp.
99-68 Louis Vrenken and Johan B.J. van Overveld examine compact fluorescent test lamps about 1981 Philips (Neth.) Photograph taken at the Philips plant in Eindhoven, The Netherlands.
* Exploded photo of Compact Fluorescent lamp 1998 Philips Lighting Press kit photo showing exploded view of SL-18 lamp. Original part labels have been added electronically.
99-4098 Peter Milewski about 1987 Drs. John and Peter Milewski Photograph taken about the time of the science fair.
99-4099 John Milewski, Sr. about 1987 Drs. John and Peter Milewski *
99-4097 Home lab of the Milewskis about 1989 Drs. John and Peter Milewski Lab equipment set-up in the Milewski home. Some of this equipment has been donated to NMAH.
99-4101 Chart of experimental results from science fair about 1987 Drs. John and Peter Milewski "A Plot of Temperature vs. Power For Single Crystal Silicon Carbide Filaments Vs Tungsten Filament Lamp". This chart was part of the science fair project.
99-4100 Silica carbide lamp in operation 1988 Superkinetic, Inc. This lamp is displayed in the exhibition.
* The Sulfur Lamp system 1999 NMAH Computer Graphic Image of how the microwave-powered sulfur lamp works.
99-4094 Michael Ury, Lee Anderson, and the five demonstration lighting units 1994 Fusion Lighting The three prototype Sulfur lamps in front were installed in the Air & Space Museum, the two at the back were installed at DOE's Forrestal Building.
99-4095 Experimental lighting system in Fusion System's plant 1993 Fusion Lighting Note sheets of white tag board attached to light-pipe to diffuse the light.
99-4128 Computer read-out (Eureka moment) 1990 Fusion Lighting Radiant power vs. spectral wavelength for experimental sulfur bulb. This test data was taken during the first successful experiment.
99-4478 Life-Test Lab at Duro-Test Corp. 1972 Duro-Test Corp.


Section 3: Promotion

Negative # Image Title Date Source Comments
99-4081 Unisphere at the 1964 New York World's Fair 1964 Time-Life 1 May 1964 issue of Life. Tungsten-halogen lamps were used to mark the national capitals on the sphere.
99-4120 Statue of Liberty after relamping. about 1986 General Electric Lighting Co. Gilbert Reiling designed special metal halide lamps for this installation.
99-4091 Big Ben lighted by "QL" lamps 1995 Philips Lighting Philips sales catalog for QL induction lamps.
99-4082 Trade-show newspaper from Osram Sylvania 1995 OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc. "Lighting Technology News," from LightFair 1995.
99-4092 Information catalog for EPA "GreenLights" program 1993 US Environmental Protection Agency EPA's Greenlights Program encourages businesses and governments to install energy-efficient lighting.
99-4105 Retail point-of-purchase sign for rebate program 1994 Potomac Electric Power Co. Compact fluorescent rebates helped off-set the high cost of these lamps.
99-4131 Structure of the Electronic Halarc 1980 US Dept. of Energy, ©General Electric Diagram of Electronic Halarc lamp's internal structure was included in a press kit from the lamp's introduction.


Section 4: Competition

Negative # Image Title Date Source Comments
99-4090 Duro-Test ad for a compact fluorescent work-light conversion kit 1992 Duro-Test Lighting *
99-4089 Mitsubishi ad for a compact fluorescent lamp 1985 U.S. Dept. of Energy, ©Mitsubishi The Mitsubishi Marathon was withdrawn from the U.S. market after a patent conflict with Philips.
99-4088 Link International ad for a compact fluorescent lamp 1998 Link International *
99-4087 Tek-Tron ad for lighting products 1991 Tek-Tron Enterprises Inc. *
99-4093 Photo of Sylvania Point-Of-Sale Fixtures 1997 OSRAM SYLVANIA Inc. *
99-4086 Panasonic catalog for compact fluorescent lamps 1995 Matsushita Home & Commercial Products Co. *


Section 5: Consequences

Negative # Image Title Date Source Comments
* New York skyline about 1990 Duro-Test Lighting *
99-4114 "North America From Space" about 1990 International Dark-Sky Association Satellite image shows the extent of exterior lighting in the U.S.
99-4115 Lighting the Golden Gate Bridge about 1980 General Electric, #31-240 GE sales photo, caption reads, "Towers and roadway lighted with GE Lucalox."
99-4116 Lighting a shipping-dock in Richmond, VA 1974 General Electric #32-46 Exterior high-pressure sodium lighting on Standard Oil of California's shipping-dock, Richmond, VA.
99-4117 Lighting Arrowhead Stadium, Kansas City, MO 1972 General Electric, #33-118 Metal halide stadium-lighting.
99-4118 Street-lighting the side of an apartment building about 1985 International Dark-Sky Association An example of poor lighting design.
* Graph of efficacies of various light sources over time 1999 NMAH Computer Graphic Energy efficiency of lighting has tended to rise since Edison's era.
99-4119 Full cut-off street-lighting fixture about 1995 International Dark-Sky Association An energy efficient street-lamp luminaire. Since more light is directed downward instead of to the sides, a lower power lamp can be used.
99-4084 GE advertisement for efficient fluorescent lamps about 1985 U.S. Dept. of Energy "Optimiser System" fluorescent advertisement.
99-4083 "Federal Energy Legislation Guide" 1995 General Electric Lighting Several companies printed guides to help customers understand the Energy Policy Act of 1995.
99-4085 "Building for the Future" 1993 U.S. Dept. of Energy, ©Kansas Electric Utilities Research Program *


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