All Asian immigrants faced prejudice, economic hardship, and social indignity. Those who came to the United States to work in mines, farms, and railroads accepted lower wages, which drew the ire of white residents. Asians became victims of riots and attacks. The 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act and the 1924 Asian Exclusion Act barred additional immigration and declared Asians ineligible for citizenship. Without citizenship, they could not own land.

A resident of Hollywood, California, makes clear her sentiments to any Japanese looking for housing in her neighborhood, around 1923
Courtesy of National Japanese American Historical Society 

Campaign poster for James D. Phelan (D-California) to the U.S. Senate, 1920
Courtesy of Alamy

"These people were truly, in every sense, aliens. The color of their skins, the repulsiveness of their features, their undersize of figure, their incomprehensible language, strange customs, and heathen religion . . . conspired to set them apart."

–Hubert Howe Bancroft, History of California, 1890

School girls reciting the pledge of allegiance
Dorthea Lange photo courtesy of the National Archives