Commander in Chief | Chief Executive | Chief Diplomat | Ceremonial Head of State | Manager of the Economy | Party Leader | National Leader

During the Great Depression of the 1930s, the homeless built ramshackle dwellings on empty lots across the country and named these "towns" Hooverville after the president they felt had abandoned them. This one was in Seattle.

Courtesy of University of Washington Library

 Herbert Hoover breadboard, probably from 1928 campaign
 National Recovery Administration Poster
Herbert Hoover's failure to aggressively meet the challenge of the 1930s depression ended his political career, while Franklin D. Roosevelt's willingness to experiment with untried solutions made him a hero to many Americans for generations.

The National Recovery Administration (NRA) created in 1933 was a keystone of Roosevelt's New Deal program. It aimed to set standards for production, prices, and wages in every industry. It specified maximum hours, minimum wages, safety requirements, and the right to unionize, centralizing economic power in the executive branch as never before. Although declared unconstitutional in 1935, the NRA opened the door for ever-increasing federal oversight of the economy.

 Sewell Avery, president of Montgomery Ward, was removed from his office in 1944 for refusing to comply with the rulings of Franklin D. Roosevelt's National War Labor Board. The army oversaw operations of Montgomery Ward until the end of World War II.

Courtesy of George Meany Memorial Archives.

 Buttons protesting Ronald Reagan's firing of members of the Professional Air Traffic Controllers Organization in 1981 for violating laws against federal employee strikes.
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